Adinkra Symbols & Meanings: West African Wisdom

Adinkra Symbols & Meanings: West African Wisdom

The historical roots of Adinkra symbols date back to the times of the Asante people of Ghana, West Africa. The Adinkra Symbols are believed to have their origin from Gyaman, a former kingdom in today’s Côte D’Ivoire. History, philosophy and various religious beliefs were the core factors in the development of these symbols. Their roots stand strong to this day, with many modern-day individuals utilizing them to provide a range of products with definitive meanings. Such industries include Jewelry, Arts, Adinkra clothing, and even the world of architecture. So, what does the Adinkra symbolism mean?


 gyen_lg GYE NYAME

“except for God”

symbol of the supremacy of God

This unique and beautiful symbol is ubiquitous in Ghana. It is by far the most popular for use in decoration, a reflection on the deeply religious character of the Ghanaian people

 sank2_lg SANKOFA

“return and get it”

symbol of importance of learning from the past


“Chief of the adinkra symbols”

symbol of greatness, charisma and leadership

This symbol is said to have played an inspiring role in the designing of other symbols. it signifies the importance of playing a leadership role

“Siamese crocodiles”symbol of democracy and unityThe Siamese crocodiles share one stomach, yet they fight over food. This popular symbol is a remind that infighting and tribalism is harmful to all who engage in it.
 denk_lg DENKYEM


symbol of adaptability

The crocodile lives in the water, yet breathes the air, demonstrating an ability to adapt to circumstances.


“ram’s horns”

symbol of humility together with strength

The ram will fight fiercely against an adversary, but it also submits humbly to slaughter, emphasizing that even the strong need to be humble.

 akon_lg AKOMA NTOSO

“linked hearts”

symbol of understanding and agreement


“by God’s grace”symbol of faith and trust in Godsimilar to Gye Nyame
According to The Adinkra Dictionary by W. Bruce Willis: “This stalk is depicted as the staff of life in many cultures. It symbolizes to the Akan that food is a basis of life and that they could not survive if not for the food that God has placed here on Earth for their nourishment. “

“God is in the heavens”

symbol of hope

A reminder that God’s dwelling place is in the heaven, where he can listen to all prayers

 nkyi_lg NKYINKYIM


symbol of initiative, dynamism and versatility

 nsor_lg NSOROMMA

“child of the heavens [stars] “

symbol of guardianship

A reminder that God is the father and watches over all people.

 bink_lg BI NKA BI

“No one should bite the other”

symbol of peace and harmony

This symbol cautions against provocation and strife. The image is based on two fish biting each other tails

 akok_lg AKOKO NAN

“the leg of a hen”

symbol of nurturing and discipline

The full name of this symbol translates to “The hen treads on her chicks, but she does not kill them.” This represents the ideal nature of parents, being both protective and corrective. An exhortation to nurture children, but a warning not to pamper them

 fiha_lg FIHANKRA


symbol of security and safety

Typical of Akan (Asante) architecture, the communal housing compound has only one entrance and exit.

 eban_lg EBAN


symbol of love, safety and security

The home to the Akan is a special place. A home which has a fence around it is considered to be an ideal residence.

The fence symbolically separates and secures the family from the outside. Because of the security and the protection that a fence affords, the symbol is also associated with the security and safety one finds in love.

— from The Adinkra Dictionary

 akob_lg AKOBEN

“war horn”

symbol of vigilance and wariness

Akoben is a horn used to sound a battle cry.


“chain link”

symbol of unity and human relations

A reminder to contribute to the community, that in unity lies strength


“snake climbing the raffia tree”

symbol of steadfastness, prudence and diligence

Because of its thorns, the raffia tree is a very dangerous challenge to the snake. His ability to climb it is a model of persistence and prudence.

 akom_lg AKOMA

“the heart”

symbol of patience and tolerance

According to Agbo, when a person is said to “have a heart in his stomach,” that person is very tolerant.

 hwem_lg HWE MU DUA

“measuring stick”

symbol of examination and quality control

This symbol stresses the need to strive for the best quality, whether in production of goods or in human endeavors.

 hyew_lg HYE WON HYE

“that which does not burn “

symbol of imperishability and endurance

This symbol gets its meaning from traditional priests that were able to walk on fire without burning their feet, an inspiration to others to endure and overcome difficulties.




symbol of independence, freedom, emancipation

“From the expression: Fawodhodie ene obre na enam.
Literal translation: “Independence comes with its responsibilities.”
– from Cloth As Metaphor by G.F. Kojo Arthur

 tamf_lg TAMFO BEBRE

“the enemy will stew in his own juice”

symbol of jealousy and envy

“wooden comb”symbol of beauty and cleanliness; symbols of desirable feminine qualitiesThe meaning of this symbol is characterized slightly differently in “The Adinkra Dictionary” and “The Values of Adinkra Symbols”; the former emphasizes more abstract qualities of feminine goodness, love and care, while the latter has a more literal interpretation, looking one’s best and good hygiene. In any case, the duafe was a prized possession of the Akan woman, used to comb and plait her hair

“that which removes bad luck”

symbol of good furtune and sanctity



“The Moon and the Star”

symbol of love, faithfulness, harmony

This symbol reflects the harmony that exists in the bonding between a man and a woman.

Proverb: “Kyekye pe aware.” (The North Star has a deep llove for marriage. She is always in the sky waiting for the return of the moon, her husband.)

–from The Adinkra Dictionary)


“puffed up extravagance”

symbol of arrogance

 bese_lg BESE SAKA

“sack of cola nuts”

symbol of affluence, power, abundance, plenty, togetherness and unity

The cola nut played an important role in the economic life of Ghana. A widely-used cash crop, it is closely associated with affluence and abundance. This symbol also represents the role of agriculture and trade in bringing peoples together.

“knot of pacification/reconciliation”symbol of reconciliation, peacemaking and pacificationMpatapo represents the bond or knot that binds parties in a dispute to a peaceful, harmonious reconciliation. It is a symbol of peacemaking after strife.
 nsaa_lg NSAA

a type of hand-woven fabric

symbol of excellence, genuineness, authenticity

According to “The Adinkra Dictionary” by W. Bruce Willis, the nsaa symbols reflects a saying: “nea onnim nsaa oto n’ago”, which he translates as “He who does not know authentic Nsaa will buy the fakes.”

The quality of Nsaa has come to represent quality of workmanship in general

 nkyimu_lg NKYIMU

the crossed divisions made on adinkra cloth before stamping

symbol of skillfulness, precision

Before adinkra cloth is stamped with the symbols, the artisan blocks off the cloth with lines in a rectangular grid using a broad-tooth comb. This preparation is symbolic of the exacting technique which results in the highest quality product.

 sesa_lg SESA WO SUBAN

“Change or transform your character “

symbol of life transformation

This symbol combines two separate adinkra symbols, the “Morning Star” which can mean a new start to the day, placed inside the wheel, representing rotation or independent movement.

 epa_lg EPA


symbol of law and justice, slavery and captivity

Adolph Agbo, in “Values of Adinkra Symbols” notes that handcuffs were introduced in Africa as a result of the slave trade, and later became popular among chiefs in cuffing offenders of the law. “The symbol reminds offenders of the uncompromising nature of the law. It however discourages all forms of slavery.”

 dame_lg DAME-DAME

name of a board game

symbol of intelligence and ingenuity


“the teeth and the tongue”

symbol of friendship and interdependence

The teeth and the tongue play interdependent roles in the mouth. They may come into conflict, but they need to work together.


“God never dies, therefore I cannot die”

symbol of God’s omnipresence and the perpetual existence of man’s spirit

This signifies the immortality of man’s soul, believed to be a part of God. Because the soul rests with God after death, it cannot die.



“wisdom knot”

symbol of wisdom, ingenuity, intelligence and patience

An especially revered symbol of the Akan, this symbol conveys the idea that “a wise person has the capacity to choose the best meeans to attain a goal. Being wise implies broad knowledge, learning and experience, and the ability to apply such faculties to practical ends.”

(Willis, “The Adinkra Dictionary“)


“Love never loses its way home”

symbol of the power of love

“What I hear, I keep”symbol of wisdom, knowledge and prudenceThe implied meaning of the phrase “mate masie” is “I understand”. Understanding means wisdom and knowledge, but it also represents the prudence of taking into consideration what another person has said.
“yellow flowered plant”symbol of jealousy and envy”When the fofo’s petals drop, they turn into black spiky-like seeds. The Akan liken the nature of this plant to a jealous person.”
– The Adinkra Dictionary by W. Bruce WillisThere is a Akan proverb associated with this symbol: “What the fofo plant wishes is that the gyinantwi seeds turn black.”
 owuo-atwedee_lg OWUO ATWEDEE

“the ladder of death”

symbol of mortality

a reminder of the transitory nature of existence in this world and of the imperative to live a good life to be a worthy soul in the afterlife



“time changes “

symbol of change, life’s dynamics

Source: Cloth As Metaphor by G.F. Kojo Arthu



“sew in readiness”

symbol of readiness, steadfastness, hardiness

According to the The Adinkra Dictionary, the design of this symbol resembles the links of a chain, and implies strength through unity as well as the importance of being prepared.

 akofena_lg AKOFENA

“sword of war “

symbol of courage, valor, and heroism

The crossed swords were a popular motif in the heraldic shields of many former Akan states. In addition to recognizing courage and valor, the swords can represent legitimate state authority


“the talons of the eagle”

symbol of strength, bravery, power

The eagle is the mightiest bird in the sky, and its strength is concentrated in its talons. The Oyoko clan, one of the nine Akan clans, uses this symbol as their clan emblem.



“God is King “

symbol of majesty and supremacy of God

Source: Cloth As Metaphor by G.F. Kojo Arthur



“By God’s grace, all will be well”

symbol of hope, providence, faith

Source: Cloth As Metaphor by G.F. Kojo Arthur


“hair style of an Asante war captain”

symbol of bravery and valor

“This symbols is said to be a special hair style of Kwatakye, a war captain of old Asante.

The symbol has come to represent bravery and fearlessness. It is also given as an earned title to any brave son of an Akan community.”

– W. Bruce Willis, The Adinkra Dictionary

 mpua_lg MPUANNUM

“five tufts” (of hair)

symbol of priestly office, loyalty and adroitness

“This symbol is said to be the hairstyle of joy. It is the traditional hairstyle of the priestesses. … The design of the adinkra symbol mpuannum resembles the way the priestesses’ hair was tied. …

It also represents the devotion and faithfulness one displays when doing a task required of one. In addition, mpuannum means loyalty or the embodiment of lofty duty to a desired goal.”
– W. Bruce Willis, The Adinkra Dictionary



“seed of the wawa tree”

symbol of hardiness, toughness and perseverance

The seed of the wawa tree is extremely hard. In Akan culture, it is a symbol of someone who is strong and tough. It inspires the individual to persevere through hardship.

Wawa Aba card (PDF format)

 aya_lg AYA


symbol of endurance and resourcefulness

The fern is a hardy plant that can grow in difficult places. “An individual who wears this symbol suggests that he has endured many adversities and outlasted much difficulty.” (Willis, The Adinkra Dictionary)

“tree of god” – altarsymbol of God’s presence and protectionThe Nyame Dua is a sacred spot where rituals are performed. Erected in front of the house or compound, it is crafted from a tree that has been cut where three or more branches come together. This stake holds an earthenware vessell filled with water and herbs or other symbolic materials for purification and blessing rituals.
“wind-resistant house”symbol of fortitude and readiness to face life’s vicissitudes”This symbol suggests a reinforced or well-built home — one built to withstand windy and treacherous conditions. It reflects in Asante history a clause in the unwritten constitutution of the Golden Stool. Oral acocunts say that according to that clause, mud houses in Kumasi must be reinforced with turf. This reinforcing would cause the house to be sturdier and resistant to unfavorable weather conditions.”
–from The Adinkra Dictionary by W. Bruce Willis


“he who wants to be king “

symbol of service and leadership

From the expression “Nea ope se obedi hene daakye no, firi ase sue som ansa” meaning “He who wants to be king in the future must first learn to serve.”
Source: Cloth As Metaphor by G.F. Kojo Arthur



“when you climb a good tree”

symbol of support, cooperation and encouragement

From the expression “Woforo dua pa a, na yepia wo” meaning “When you climb a good tree, you are given a push”. More metaphorically, it means that when you work for a good cause, you will get support.
Source: Cloth As Metaphor by G.F. Kojo Arthur



“If your hands are in the dish”

symbol of participatory government, democracy and pluralism

From the aphorism, “Wo nsa da mu a, wonni nnya wo” — “If your hands are in the dish, people do not eat everything and leave you nothing.”

Source: “Cloth As Metaphor” by G.F. Kojo Arthur



“Help me and let me help you”

symbol of cooperation and interdependence

Source: “Cloth As Metaphor” by G.F. Kojo Arthur

 ketepa_lg KETE PA

“good bed “

symbol of a good marriage

From the expression that a woman who has a good marriage is said to sleep on a good bed.

See Cloth As Metaphor by G.F. Kojo Arthur, pp. 87-89

 mewarewo_lg ME WARE WO

“I shall marry you “

symbol of commitment, perseverance

From the expression “No one rushes into the job of mixing the concrete for building the house of marriage.”

See Cloth As Metaphor by G.F. Kojo Arthur, pp. 89, 163.



“the Earth has weight”

symbol of providence and the divinity of Mother Earth

This symbol represents the importance of the Earth in sustaining life.


“He who does not know can know from learning”

symbol of knowledge, life-long education and continued quest for knowledge

Source: Cloth As Metaphor by G.F. Kojo Arthur


“spider’s web”

symbol of wisdom, creativity and the complexities of life

Ananse, the spider, is a well-known character inAfrican folktales.





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